After the Prophet Muhammad’s death in 632, Islam expands beyond Arabia to Persia, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, and North Africa.
Caliph Harun al-Rashid founds the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. The city’s scholars translate many ancient manuscripts and medical texts.
Al-Razi (Rhazes) is born in Persia. Physician, chemist, and teacher, he writes many important medical works later translated into Latin and Greek.
Surgeon Al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) is born in Córdoba. Inventor of many medical instruments, he writes the first illustrated surgical book.
In Baghdad, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) writes the Canon of Medicine, a five-volume work encompassing all known medical knowledge of the time.
Ibn Rushd (Averroës) is born. Philosopher, astronomer, and physician, he writes a medical encyclopedia known as the Colliget in Latin.
Ottoman Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu is born. A surgeon, he creates illustrated works showing the advanced procedures of Muslim medicine.